Speciofoline is a plant alkaloid, a compound found in red maeng da that has a number of therapeutic properties. In this article we will discuss the antitussive, analgesic, and drug-inhibiting properties of Speciofoline. We will also review its interactions with several other drugs, including opioids. Further studies are needed to determine the utility of Speciofoline in pain management.
Speciofoline Is An Antitussive
Speciofoline is a type of alkaloid found in the dried powdered leaves of red maeng da. This compound mimics the effects of mitragynine, but has a different chemical structure. Red maeng da capsules contain over forty different alkaloids. The concentration of Speciofoline is very small – less than 1% of the total. But it can vary in nature and between strains.
Although speciofoline is relatively small in content, it has a wide range of beneficial effects. It has anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antioxidant properties. Speciofoline is not a psychoactive agent; however, it can help to relieve coughs and soothe the body. In addition, speciofoline has mild mood enhancement properties, similar to those of stronger alkaloids.
Other compounds in red maeng da leaves include oxindole alkaloids (such as mitragynine), which act as a vasodilator, an anti-hypertensive, and an anti-inflammatory. It also contains mitraciliatine, which is an indole alkaloid found in red maeng da’s leaves, stems, trunk, and root barks. Studies have shown that mitraciliatine and speciofoline appear in urine samples of red maeng da users. Both oxindole alkaloids have antihypertensive properties.
It Is An Analgesic
Many people are skeptical about the efficacy of red maeng da as a medicinal substance. In fact, several US patents for red maeng da products are pending. However, the plant is widely used in Asian medicine and receives extensive media attention. This review will provide an overview of the current state of research in this area. Read on to learn more about red maeng da and its medicinal properties.
The main pharmacological target of red maeng da is the adrenergic system. The red maeng da alkaloid mitragynine was the first red maeng da compound to display an antinociceptive effect in mice, but was reversible by the drug idazoxan. Other red maeng da alkaloids that exert antinociceptive actions in rodents include yohimbine and prazosin.
It Inhibits CYP2C9
Studies have shown that the compounds found in red maeng da (Mitragynine, Speciofoline, 7-hydroxymitragynine, corynoxine, and speciofoline) are inhibitors of CYP2C9, an enzyme that is responsible for the production of the psychoactive drug opiates. However, there is currently no analytical standard for speciofoline, so further research is needed.
The effects of mitragynine are not fully understood, but it appears to interfere with a number of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which can cause increased exposure to co-consumed drugs and their potentially harmful effects. However, studies using red maeng da extracts have found that the compounds inhibit these enzymes in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of CYP2D6 is the strongest, and red maeng da samples inhibit both enzymes.
Two other alkaloids found in red maeng da, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, inhibited CYP2D6. The inhibitory effects of these two compounds were similar, with mitragynine inhibiting CYP2D6 activity better than speciofoline. In vitro cell-based assays, mitragynine was a weak inhibitor of CYP2C9, but it was more potent than isolated mitragynine.
It Inhibits CYP3A
Inhibitors of CYP3A are important for drug development as cellular barriers impose formidable hurdles. These barriers protect cells and regulate the tissue microenvironment. Further studies on red maeng da alkaloids are necessary to better understand the mechanisms of action of these molecules. In addition to inhibiting CYP3A, red maeng da alkaloids interact with membrane transporters (effluent and efflux transporters) and drug-metabolizing enzymes. Understanding how these compounds interact with these transporters will help scientists develop effective delivery methods in the future.
Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are both partial opioid agonists, while speciofoline does not exhibit any significant binding affinity to the opioid receptor. However, speciofoline does show functional selectivity in G-protein signaling and does not recruit b-arrestin. Further studies are needed to determine whether these compounds have any medicinal value.
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